ENERGY EQUIPMENT


What is a boiler?


This section briefly describes the Boiler and various auxiliaries in the Boiler Room.

A boiler is an enclosed vessel that provides a means for combustion heat to be transferred into water until it becomes heated water or steam. The hot water or steam under pressure is then usable for transferring the heat to a process. Water is a useful and cheap medium for transferring heat to a process. When water is boiled into steam its volume increases about 1,600 times, producing a force that is almost as explosive as gunpowder. This causes the boiler to be extremely dangerous equipment that must be treated with utmost care.

The boiler system comprises of: feed water system, steam system and fuel system. The feed water system provides water to the boiler and regulates it automatically to meet the steam demand. Various valves provide access for maintenance and repair. The steam system collects and controls the steam produced in the boiler. Steam is directed through a piping system to the point of use. Throughout the system, steam


Fig: A typical Schematic of a Boiler Room
(Reference: National Productivity Council)

pressure is regulated using valves and checked with steam pressure gauges. The fuel system includes all equipment used to provide fuel to generate the necessary heat. The equipment required in the fuel system depends on the type of fuel used in the system.

The water supplied to the boiler that is converted into steam is called feed water. The two sources of feed water are: (1) Condensate or condensed steam returned from the processes and (2) Makeup water (treated raw water) which must come from outside the boiler room and plant processes. For higher boiler efficiencies, the feed water is preheated by an economizer, using the waste heat in the flue gas.

Next (Types of boilers & thermic fluid heaters)


Copyright© United Nations Environment Programme 2006